Risk factors for acquiring travel-associated enteric fever in England, Wales and Northern Ireland
PHE ePoster Library. Stevens F. 09/12/17; 186514; 135
Flora Stevens
Flora Stevens
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Abstract
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Abstract IntroductionEnteric fever (also known as typhoid and paratyphoid) is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or Paratyphi and is spread to humans through faecally-contaminated food and water. During 2006-2015, 423 cases of laboratory-confirmed enteric fever were reported per year in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EWNI); of which 82% were acquired abroad. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors for acquiring enteric fever during travel.MethodRates of enteric fever in EWNI per 100,000 visits abroad between 01/01/2016 and 31/12/2015 were calculated using laboratory-confirmed cases from PHE enteric fever surveillance and the Office for National Statistics International Passenger Survey. Data were analysed in MS Excel and STATA.ResultsThe overall rate of enteric fever for all destinations was 0.50 cases per 100,000 visits. The highest rate was observed in those visiting Southern Asia (21.45 per 100,000) followed by Middle Africa (4.25 per 100,000) and South America (3.54 per 100,000). Travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in Southern Asia had an increased risk (24.97 per 100,000) compared to those travelling for all other reasons (5.58 per 100,000). The risk of contracting enteric fever abroad decreased exponentially with age. Children (0-15 years) were at the highest risk (2.65 per 100,000) those aged 65+ years were at the lowest risk (0.19 per 100,000). ConclusionVFR visits to Southern Asia and children aged 0-15 years were associated with the highest risk of acquiring travel-associated enteric fever in EWNI. These travellers should be prioritised for prevention advice and typhoid vaccination.
Abstract IntroductionEnteric fever (also known as typhoid and paratyphoid) is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or Paratyphi and is spread to humans through faecally-contaminated food and water. During 2006-2015, 423 cases of laboratory-confirmed enteric fever were reported per year in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EWNI); of which 82% were acquired abroad. The objective of this study is to identify risk factors for acquiring enteric fever during travel.MethodRates of enteric fever in EWNI per 100,000 visits abroad between 01/01/2016 and 31/12/2015 were calculated using laboratory-confirmed cases from PHE enteric fever surveillance and the Office for National Statistics International Passenger Survey. Data were analysed in MS Excel and STATA.ResultsThe overall rate of enteric fever for all destinations was 0.50 cases per 100,000 visits. The highest rate was observed in those visiting Southern Asia (21.45 per 100,000) followed by Middle Africa (4.25 per 100,000) and South America (3.54 per 100,000). Travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) in Southern Asia had an increased risk (24.97 per 100,000) compared to those travelling for all other reasons (5.58 per 100,000). The risk of contracting enteric fever abroad decreased exponentially with age. Children (0-15 years) were at the highest risk (2.65 per 100,000) those aged 65+ years were at the lowest risk (0.19 per 100,000). ConclusionVFR visits to Southern Asia and children aged 0-15 years were associated with the highest risk of acquiring travel-associated enteric fever in EWNI. These travellers should be prioritised for prevention advice and typhoid vaccination.
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